Imikore ya Airbag yo mumodoka

Imikore ya Airbag yo mumodoka

Amateka ya Airbag

Airbag ubu igiye kumara imyaka irenga 36 itangiye gukoreshwa, kuko yatangiye kujya kw'isoko k'ubuntu ahagana muri 1980 itangiriye kuri Mercedes Class S. Turebye ku mateka yayo yatangiye gukorwaho ubushakashatsi mumpera yo muri za 50, igitekerezo cyo kuyikora cyavuye kuri bariya bantu bagenda mu byogajuru, yakomeje kugenda ikorwaho muri 1973 nibwo yakoreshejwe bwambere, muri ikigihe wasabwaga kwishyura kugirango bayigushyiririre mumodoka. Muntangiriro Airbag yari yakozwe kugirango ize gusimbura iriya mikandara yo mumodoka, gusa ntabwo byaje kugerwaho. Mukinyarwanda Airbag ushobora kuvuga ko ari umufuka uhagwa cyangwa umusego uhagwa byose wabikoresha.

Imikorere ya Airbag

Imikorere ya Airbag igizwe n'ibice bitanu byingenzi: Irabanza ika detecta ikibaye (détection), ubundi ikatsa système (déclenchement), hagakurikiraho gusoka kwayo (déploiement), guhura nikintu kiya amoritisa (amortissement), hanyuma igashiramo umwuka (dégonflement).

Ibibyose tuvuze hejuru biba mugihe kitarenze 150ms, iyo habaye shoke (choc), capteur (abatumva capteur tuzashaka umunsi tuzivugeho nuburyo zikora) zipima igabanuka ry’umuvuduko w’imodoka maze zikoherereza mudasobwa (calculateur) zabugenewe amakuru kubyo zibonye, iki ni igice cyambere twise kudetecta (détection). Bitewe nibyo zohereje, hari sinyare (signale) ihita yoherezwa aho Airbag ziri, aha ni igice cya kabiri (déclenchement). Iyi signale yoherezwa kandi kuri générateur ya gaz, iyi générateur ihita ihaga Airbag ikoresheje gaz, iki ni igice cya gatatu. Iyo imaze gusoka rero igakora k’umubiri w’umuntu cyangwa ikindi kintu gishobora kuya amortisa( iki ni igice cya kane amortissement), ihita ishiramo wamwuka wari wagiyemo (ni igice cya nyuma degonflement), aha byumvikane neza ko igomba kubona ikintu ikubitaho cyangwa ihura nacyo iyo yasontse. Uku gushiramo umwuka rero babikoze kugirango bige byorohereza abantu kubona cyangwa gutanga ubutabazi ntakintu kibananiza, urumva ikomeje ikuzuramo umwuka, Byabuza abashaka gutanga ubutabazi kwinjira mumodoka.

Amoko ya Airbag

Airbag rero zirimo amoko menshi bitewe na forme cyangwa n’akamaro ziribukore hari :

  1. Airbag z’imbere (Airbag Frontaux) imwe ikunze kuba iri kuri volant, ikaba yaragenewe kurinda umushoferi iyi ikaba ari itegeko kumodoka zose, ariko hari nizindi ziba ziri kuri tableau de bord. Iya kabiri ikunze kuba iri hejuru yakariye kantu abantu bakunda gushyiramo impapuro (boite à gant) ikaba yaragenewe kurinda umugenzi wicaye imbere.
  2. Airbag zo kumpande (Airbag latéraux) izi Airbag zikunda gushyirwa mumpande y’intebe zaba izimbere cyangwa inyuma, hari nizindi bashyira kunzugi. Izi rero zo zirinda abantu bari mumodoka igihe imodoka igize shoke ahagana mumpande. Gusa izizo ntabwo ari itegeko, kugirango bazigushyiriremo ubanza kwishyura ni ibyo bakunda kwita (Option tuzabanyuriramo muri make icyo aricyo).
  3. Airbag z'amarido (Airbag Rideaux) izi bakunda kuzita kandi Airbag zo kugisenge (Airbag de toit), nkuko izina ryazo ryumvikana izi zizingurira kubirahure iyo hari impanuka ibaye, muri make zikora nka rido zo munzu, zikaba zirinda ko umuntu yakwishwa nibirahure mugihe habaye impanuka. Izi nazo ntabwo ari itegeko kuzishyiramo iyo uzikeneye urishyura.
  4. Airbaga zomumavi (Airbag genoux) izi zikora nkaziriya zambere (frontaux) uretseko zo zita cyane kugice cyohasi y’umuntu, muri make ni kumaguru.
  5. Airbag zirinda kunyerere (Airbag Anti-glissement) akamaro kizingizi zituma mugihe habaye impanuka utanyerera ngo ube waca m'umukandara w'imodoka.

Izi nizo zingenzi twabasha kubabwira gusa ibyo ntibivuze ko ntazindi zihari, uko iminsi na technologie bigenda bihinduka nazo nuko. Nko kumodoka zirimo gusoka muri iyi minsi Airbag ziba ziri ahantu hose. Nkuko twabivuze haruguru airbag zigitangira byari byitezwe ko zazasimbura imikandara yo mumodoka ariko siko byagenze kuko ari système ebyiri zuzuzanya, biciye mukuma bita (prétensionneur), iyo airbag isotse kariya kuma gahita gakurura umukandara maze ugakwega umuntu ukamwegeka kuntebe.

N’ubwo mumodoka ushobora gusangamo Airbag nyinshi siko zose zikorera rimwe, kandi buri yose ifite configuration yayo, ariko bitewe nuburemere bw’impanuka zishobora gukorera icyarimwe. Airbag ikoreshwa rimwe gusa (usage unique), n'ukuvuga ko iyo imaze gukora, urugero nyuma y'impanuka, igomba gusimbuzwa yose uko yakabaye, iki gikorwa kirahenda cyane, gishobora kugera muri za 2000€ nabwo biterwa n'umubare wa Airbag imodoka isazwe ifite n’izigomba gusimbuzwa.

Uko Airbag zikorerwa entretien

Inama tugirwa nabazikora, bavugako zigomba gusuzumwa byibuze buri myaka 10 cyangwa 15 bitewe na marque y’imodoka. Ibigomba gusuzumwa rero ni igice kijyanye na electronique gusa, kuko mecanique ntacyo kuyirebaho uretse wenda kureba ko udutara twaka ntakindi. Airbag iyo imaze imyaka 10 kumodoka zakozwe mbere ya 2005 nta garantie iba igihari ko ishobora kuba yakora neza, iyi myaka igera kuri 15 kumodoka zakozwe nyuma ya 2005.

Ibibazo byaterwa na Airbag

Iyo Airbag isotse isokana umuvuduko wa 250km/h iba yiruka cyane pe. Uguturika kwa airbag gushobora gutwika cyangwa ikaba yakomeretsa. Kubera urusaku isokana rugera kuri 160 dB (décibels) ishobora kumena amatwi bikaba byakurizamo kugira ikibazo cyo kumva, bishobora kumara igihe gito cyangwa bikaba byamara igihe kirekire.

Uko wakagombye kwitwara kugirango airbag ikore neza

Umushoferi agomba kuba byibuze ari kuri 25cm uvuye kuri volant, rwose nimba utwaye reka gusatira cyane volant. Naho k'umuntu wicaye imbere uruhande rwashoferi yakagombye byibuze kuba ari kuri 30cm uvuye kuri tableau de bord. Birabujijwe rwose kugenda washyize amaguru hejuru ya boite à gant kuko airbag iramutse isotse ishobora kukuvunagura amaguru. Kubantu batwara banywa itabi ibi ntabwo ari byiza kuko airbag iramutse isotse ufite itabi kumunywa nawe urumva icyakurikira. Kubakunda gushyira abana bato cyane imbere bari munsi ya 10ans, ubundi bivugwako umwana uri muri kiriya kigero iyo ari imbere agomba kwicara areba aho avuye, gusa airbag ifite ubushobozi gwo kuba bwakwica umwana ugenda muri ubwo buryo, aha inama mugirwa ni uguhagarika (désactiver) airbag y'imbere (Frontal), gusa ntakwibagirwa kuyisubizaho mugihe utagitwaye uwo mwana. Iyo umwana umwicaje imbere rero Airbag zokumpande zo ntakibazo kinini zitera, gusa ugirwa inama yo kuzamura intebe umwana yicayeho kugirango umutwe w'umwana utajya ahateganye naho airbag zishobora gusokera.

Uko wahagarika Airbag mugihe utwaye umwana

Nkuko twabivuze haruguru, igihe utwaye umwana uri munsi ya 10ans imbere, agomba kugenda yicaye areba aho imodoka ivuye, n'ukuvuga ateye umugongo umuhanda. Ikindi ugomba gukora ni uguhagarika Airbag z’imbere kuruhande rwe kugirango zitamugirira nabi. Kugirango uyihagarike rero biterwa n’ubwoko bw'imodoka, inyinshi zigira aka interrupteur gakoresha agafunguzo niko ukaraga, mugihe ubona utabisobanukiwe washaka umuntu ukora mw’igaraje (Garage) aka gusobanurira. Hari amamodoka abasha kumenya ko hari umwana wicaye imbere, ibyo twavuze  haruguru ikabyikorera ntacyo wowe ukoze.

Airbag cyangwa umusego uhagwa ikaba ari kimwe mubintu birinda umutekano wabantu igihe bari mumodoka mugihe ikoze impanuka. Ikaba yarateganyijwe gukora gusa iyo imodoka ikoze accident cyangwa bayigonzeho. Yatangiwe bwambere n'inganda ebyiri z'abanyamerika arizo Ford na General Motors. Imodoka zamabere zagiyemo airbag z’imbere (frontaux) hari Buik,Chevrolet na Oldsmobile hari muri 1973. Ubu Airbag ntabwo zikiri izo mumodoka zagaciro gusa, kuko byabaye nkihame munganda zikora imodoka ko airbag zigomba kuba mubintu by'ibanze imodoka igomba kuba ifite ibyo bikaba byaratangiwe na Mercedez kuri Class S muri 1980.

 

 

 

Ibirebana numwanditsi

SIMPUNGA Jean Bosco : Ingénieur en Génie des Systèmes Automatisés.

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