Bioéthanol : Essence yo mubimera

Bioéthanol : Essence yo mubimera

Nkuko twabigarutseho ubwo twasobanuraga ku byiciro bya carburant (kanda hano urebe ibyiciri bya carburant), twabonye ko hari carburant zisazwe z'umwimerere (Essence na Diesel) tubona ko kandi izi carburant tumaze kuvuga hejuru zishobora gukorwa no mubihingwa bitandukanye zikaboneka. Ubu buryo bwo gukora carburant mubihingwa burimo kugenda bwiganza cyane mu bihugu bitandukanye dore ko ibihugu byinshi bifite ubwoba ko ziriya carburant z'umwimerere zizagera aho zigashira. Mubihingwa hashobora gukorwamo carburant ya essence cyangwa se diesel, muri iyi nkuru turibanda kuri carburant ya essence. Carburant ikoreshwa ku modoka za essence ivuye mubimera yahawe izina rya bioéthanol.

Bioéthanol n'iki?

Ijambo bioéthanol rigijwe n'amagambo abiri atandukanye hari bio rituruka kw'ijambo ry'ikigereki "bios" bikaba bivuze ubuzima cyangwa se ikintu gifite ubuzima, hakaba ijambo éthanol, ikaba ari alcool ikunze kugaragara mu nzoga zitandukanye zirimo umusemburo. Inganda zitandukanye zikaba zikunze no kuyifashisha mubikorwa bimwe nabimwe bitandukanye. Carburant ya bioéthanol ikorwa mu binyampeke (ingano, ibigori...) cyangwa se muri betterave y'isukari. Ibi bimera tumaze kuvuga haruguru iyo birimo gukura binyunyuza CO2 nyinshi cyane.

Uko bigaragara kuri iki gishyshanyo kiri hejuru, imodoka zikoresha bioéthanol iyo zirimo gukora, moteri zazo hari CO2 zohereza mukirere. Ariko iyi CO2 zohereza akaba ari yayindi byabihingwa biba byaranyunyuje igihe byakuraga cyangwa igihe byahingwaga, bivuzeko muri make carburant ya bioéthanol itangiza ikirere ugereranije na carburant zindi zisazwe. Bioéthanol ikaba ibasha kugabanya CO2 kugera kukigero cya 60%.

Uko bioéthanol ikorwa?

Carburant ya bioéthanol iboneka binyuze munzira yo gutarwa (nka kumwe batara umutobe ukazahindukamo urwangwa) kwa biriya bihingwa twavuze, iyo bitazwe bituma iriya sukari iba irimo ihindukamo alcool ifite ingufu, nkuko twabivuze hejuru éthanol ikaba ari alcool. Iyo iyi alcool imaze kuboneka ikorerwa distillation (ni uburyo bayicanira igashyuha cyane maze umwuka uvamo ukaza gutanga alcool yavanywemo produit chimique). Nyuma yo gukora distilation hakorwa indi technique yo gukamuramo amazi (déshydratation) nyuma yibi byose nibwo haboneka bioéthanol yanyayo.

Nkuko tumaze kubibona hano hejuru, bioéthanol iboneka biciye munzira nyinshi zitandukanye. Nubwo twavuze ko iboneka mu bigori; betterave; n'ingano ntabwo aribyo gusa bishobora kuvamo carburant ya bioéthanol hari n'ibindi bihingwa bishobora gutanga iriya carburant, aha twavuga nk'ibisheke, ibirayi... Icyo twabamenyesha n'uko bioéthanol idakunze gukoreshwa yonyine ahubwo ivangwa na essence isazwe, ariko hakaba hari ibipimo bigomba kubahirizwa kuburyo imodoka isazwe ikoresha essence ishobora gukoresha urwo ruvange ntakindi ihinduweho, iyo bitagenze gutyo bisaba gukoresha technique ya flex fuel (tuzayigarukaho mu minsi iri imbere).

Bioéthanol kw'isi?

Bioéthanol ntabwo ije vuba aha kuko imaze imyaka irenga 150 yaratangiye gukoreshwa, yatangiye gukoreshwa ahagana muri 1860, ariko ibi byaje gusa nkibihagarara muri 1960 ubwo habonekaga ibirombe byinshi byo gucukuramo ibikomoka kuri pétrole. Muri 1973 ubwo isi yahuraga n'ihungabana ry'ubukungu kubikomoka kuri pétrole,nibwo ibihugu bitandukanye byahise bihindukira bitangira gushaka ikindi gishobora kwifashishwa muri icyo gihe. Hatekerejwe ku modoka zikoresha amashanyarazi (kanda hano urebe imikorere yizi modoka) no kuri carburant ikomoka kubimera. Ibihugu bimwe na bimwe byafashe imyanzuro itoroshye bihita byemera ku mugaragaro ko bioethanol yemewe nka carburant.  Ibihugu nka Bresil kuva icyo gihe kugeza ubu byakomeje umugambi wogukomeza guteza imbere bioéthanol, Bresil ikaba aricyo gihugu gikoresha cyane Bioéthanol kurusha ibindi kw'isi kigakurikirwa n'abanyamerika.

Ibirebana numwanditsi

SIMPUNGA Jean Bosco : A la base je suis Ingénieur en Systèmes Automatisés. Depuis 2012 je travaille chez ITLINK-IPSIS www.itlink.fr dans la signalisation ferroviaire ligne à grande vitesse (TGV).

1 Comments

  1. Date: May 2, 2018 kuri 18:24
    Umwanditsi: JVP

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