Amateka : Alessandro Volta wavumbuye amabuye atanga umuriro

Amateka : Alessandro Volta wavumbuye amabuye atanga umuriro

Mubuzima bwa buri munsi hari ibintu dukoresha ariko ugasanga tutita ku menya inkomoko yabyo, cyangwa se ugasanga nta mwanya tubona wo kuba twatekereza aho byakomotse n'uburyo byatangiye gukoreshwa. Muri rusanga nta muntu utazi cyangwa utarabona amabuye amwe atanga umuriro w'amashanyarazi (pile électrique : muri iyi nkuru turakomeza gukoresha ijambo pile kuko nidukoresha amabuye hari abakeka ko tuvuga aya mabuye asazwe watoragura no mu muhanda).

Pile électrique tubona ubu uko zaba zikoze kose naho zaba zikoreshwa hose dore ko usanga zikoreshwa mubintu byinshi, zifite inkomoko kuri Alessandro Volta akaba ariwe mubyeyi cyangwa se ariwe wambere wabashije gushyira ahagaragara ubushakashatsi ku mikorere y'amabuye atanga amashanyarazi.

Umunyabugenge (Physicien) w'umutaliyani Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, akaba ari umwana wa Felipe Volta na Maria Magdalena Inzaghi yavukiye i Côme mu butaliyani kw'itariki ya 18/02/1745.
Amashuri ye yize ibijyanye na science, ku myaka 18 nibwo yatangiye kugaragaza ubuhanga yari afite arinabwo yatangiye gukorana n'abanyabugenge bari bakomeye muri icyo gihe.
Muri 1774 yagizwe professeur kw'ishuri ry'umugi avukamo ryitwa rolay de Côme.
Muri 1778 yatangiye kwerekana ubushake no kwita cyane kubintu bijyanye n'ubutabire (chimie), aha akaba ariho yabashije gukora igikorwa cyo gutandukanya gaz méthane n'ibindi bintu ikaba yabikwa.
Muri 1779 yagizwe professeur uhoraho mubijyanye na physique kuri université ya Pavie.
Muri 1800 nibwo yabashije gushyira ku mugaragaro ubuvumbuzi bwe kubijyanye n'amabuye atanga amashanyarazi, akaba ayarabikoreye muri royal london society

Alessandro Volta ubuzima bwe bwarazwe no kuyobora ubushakashatsi butandukanye bwagiye buhindura iyi si dutuyeho, gusa ubushakashatsi yakoze bugahindura imibereho y'abagize isi ni uburebana n'amabuye atanga amashanyarazi "Pile Voltaïque".
Mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 18, ikiremwa muntu ntabwo cyari cyagasobanukirwa n'ibijyanye n'amashanyarazi neza. Ahagana muri 1780 ni bwo uwitwa Luigi Galvani yabonyeko iyo ufashe ibyuma bibiri bidahuje ubwoko hagati yabyo ugashyiramo igice kimwe munyama zigize igikeri bitanga amashanyarazi. Alessandro Volta agendeye kubyo Luigi Galvani yari yabonye, yakomeje ubushakashatsi biza kurangira yemeje ko mu byukuri ataringombwa ko hakoreshwa inyama z'inyamaswa mu kubona amashanayarazi, aha nibwo yatanze igisubizo cyuburyo bishobora gukorwamo kugirango hirindwe gukoresha inyama.
Igitekerezo cya Alessandro Volta cyari ugukoresha utu disque dutandukanye (zinc na argent) akagenda atwegeranya ariko atunyuranya, n'ukuvuga nimba abanje aka zinc yakurikizagaho aka argent utwo tu disque hagati yagendaga adutandukanya n'udu carton yabanzaga gushyiramo saumure (ni ibintu byenda kumenra nk'umushongi w'umunyu). Iyo ibyo tumaze kuvuga haruguru byahuzwaga neza ni ho havagamo inkomoko y'umuriro w'amashanyarazi. Kugeza ubu ubwo buvumbuzi bwe nibwo bwagendewe ho mugukora amabuye akoreshwa mu gutanga umuriro w'amashanyarazi tukoresha kugeza n'anubu.

Alessandro Volta yagiye ahabwa ibihembo bitandukanye n'abantu bazwi nkibihangange byaranze isi, aha twavuga nk'igihembo yabonye 1801 yahawe n'umwami w'abami ariwe Napoléon, ya muhaye titre yo kuba sénateur wa Lombardie anamuha n'umudari wa zahabu kubwu bushakashatse n'ubuvumbuzi yari yarakoze.
Muri 1815 yagiriwe ikizere ahabwa umwanya wo kuba umuyobozi mukuri w'agashami kigisha ibya philosophie kuri université ya Padoue.
Mu rwego rwo ku muha icyubahiro akwiye Alessandro Volta niwe witiriwe urugero rukoreshwa mumashanyarazi tuzi kw'izina rya Volt (V), urugero ujya wumva bivugwa ngo ikintu gikoresha 220V, 380V, 12V.... iriya V ikaba ikomoka kw'izina rya Alessandro Volta. Ntabwo byagarukiye aho gusa murwego rwo kumuha icyubahiro akwiye izina rye riri mumazina make afite umwanya uhoraho ku kwezi (ibi bikorerwa abantu babye intangarugero kwisi amazina yabo agahabwa agace runaka kari k'ukwezi).

Muri rusange ngibyo ibyo twabasha kubagezaho ku mateka ya Alessandro Volta wagize uruhare rugaragara mu iterambere ry'amashanyarazi abyarwa n'amabuye, amateka ye ntabwo twayavuga ko tuyarangize twagerageje kubanyuriramo muri make ibyaranze ubuzima bwe n'abike mubyo yavumbuye.

Ibirebana numwanditsi

SIMPUNGA Jean Bosco : Ingénieur en Génie des Systèmes Automatisés.

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